Autorreactividad, tolerancia y autoinmunidad

  1. Díaz Martín, D. 1
  2. Álvarez-Mon Soto, M. 2
  1. 1 Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas. Universidad de Alcalá. Alcalá de Henares. Madrid. España
  2. 2 Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas. Universidad de Alcalá. Alcalá de Henares. Madrid. España Servicio de Medicina Interna, Reumatología y Autoinmunidad. Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias. Alcalá de Henares. Madrid. España
Medicine: Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado

ISSN: 0304-5412

Year of publication: 2021

Issue Title: Enfermedes del sistema inmune (VI)

Series: 13

Issue: 33

Pages: 1893-1905

Type: Article


More publications in: Medicine: Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado

Sustainable development goals


Autoimmunity is an immune response against one or several of your own antigens. Autoimmune diseases are the result of injury or loss of physiological function in organs and tissues due to an autoimmune response. This specific recognition is mediated by adaptive immune system cells, that is, T- and B-lymphocytes, though cells and molecules of the innate immune system also play a role in the mechanisms of injury. Autoimmune diseases are chronic and tend to be progressive. The persistence of the antigen, of the specific memory T and B cells, and of the powerful mechanisms of inflammatory amplification are the pathogenic mechanisms that perpetuate this disease. Mechanisms of tolerance are essential for the control of autoreactivity and mainly include those mediated in the periphery by T-lymphocytes. The etiology of autoimmune diseases has not been elucidated, although it seems clear that it is multifactorial. Genetic propensity is an important factor and certain sets of gene alleles can predispose an individual to a disease. In addition, environmental factors such as infection and tissue injury appear fundamental to its development.

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